Did you know that inside each of the over one trillion cells of your body are miniature machines, programmed to do specific tasks just like a computer? They do all the building, maintaining, and repairing needed by the cell. Some of them are Motors (for example, the bacterial flagellum), transportation vehicles (the Kineson motor), roadways (microtubules), scissors and knot releasers (Topoisomerases & Topoisomerases II), recycle grinders, and energy factories, and many more fascinating machines help the cell function.
For a better understanding of these molecular machines and the information needed to make cellular life work visit this web address for a 9:11 video by Dr. Stephen C. Meyer, author of Signature in the Cell.
“I will praise You, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; Marvelous are your works, And that my soul knows very well. My frame was not hidden from You, When I was made in secret, And skillfully wrought in the lowest parts of the earth. Your eyes saw my substance, being yet unformed. And in your book they were all written, The days fashioned for me, When as yet there were none of them.” Psalm 139: 14-16
Want to learn more about one of these nanomachines? Visit the following site for a 7:36 video telling more about the bacterial flagellum.
These machines inside us are “irreducibly complex,” meaning that without even one of their parts they would cease to function. Yet, they are highly-organized and sophisticated to the highest degree. For more about what irreducible complexity is follow this link for a 8:40 video. Be patient, or advance the video to about 6:00 into it where irreducible complexity is described.
Before scientists observed these wonders in the cell with the use of the most powerful and advanced microscopes, only someone who assumed life was designed and believed in Psalm 139 would have good reason to think that these machines were there. Yet, so many people only believe in the Darwinian belief system of how life began. Honestly, even Darwin seemed to have his doubts:
“If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed which could not possibly have been formed by numerous successive slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break down.” Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life., 1859.
Three of the popular Darwinian explanations (i.e. theories) for the origin of life leading to evolution are “Random Chance”, “Natural Selection”, and “Chemical Evolution.”
Random Chance– the theory that life became by amino acids randomly interacting over millions of years leading to the first life forms. A still accepted belief about how life began. But since more modern research capabilities have established that the DNA molecule contains more organized information than the Encyclopedia Britannica. Imagine the odds of amino acids having #1, the right bonds between themselves, #2, coming in left handed versions, then #3, linking up in a specific sequence along a DNA strand to form a simple protein molecule (one in 10 x trillions). Also, a simple cell needs between 300 and 500 protein molecules (with their own combinations of amino acids) to exist.
Natural Selection- the theory proposing that the first cells on earth replicated themselves to more and more complex organisms. But the problem with this theory is we now know that for a cell to replicate it has to have DNA, the genetic code to do so. Plus, one had to first have the very first cell be one that can replicate itself (the old “Which came first, the chicken or the egg?” scenario). Darwinists cannot explain how DNA came about in that first cell from non-living matter (because it hints at the existence of a programmer). More pointedly one needs to have a high ratio of nitrogen present for amino acids to form and eventual protein formation to occur. No scientific endeavor to find evidence of a nitrogen rich soil or rocks (above .15 percent) high enough to sustain amino acids on planet earth has ever been found. For an explanation on why the theories of natural and random selection are inferior to intelligent design follow this link to an 8:01 presentation.
Chemical Evolution – So, when no evidence of a high nitrogen environment could be produced by the mid-1920’s, a Russian scientist named Alexander Oparin made the claim that original life began from a process he called chemical evolution (later termed biochemical predestination). He suggested that simple chemicals combined and re-combined over time to form large then larger molecules that eventually amino acids organized themselves into proteins, using random chance variations and natural selection, to form the first primitive living cells. But this theory didn’t explain how the amino acids assembled themselves by use of the genetic information necessary to assemble (In other words, without DNA or RNA and the code-A, G, T, C, that would be discovered 3-4 decades later) into proteins. Nevertheless, given the scientific capabilities of the time, this chemical evolution theory would be held as sacred for at least four decades.
In the middle of the 20th Century, long before the technological research advances we have today came long, even scientists like Albert Einstein had doubts about the Darwinian evolution.
The compelling question that reputable, open minded scientists like Einstein attempted to answer was what was the source of the genetic code and sequencing (under the chemical evolution theory) that instructed amino acids to form into proteins and eventually into living, functioning matter?
We carry twenty-three pairs of chromosomes. Thirty thousands genes are embedded in these twenty-three pairs, yielding as many as 20,500 different kinds of proteins.
DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid, a molecule of genetic information for all complex life forms. There are some six feet of DNA tightly coiled inside every one of the one trillion cells that make up our bodies.
Gene– a stretch of DNA that assembles amino acids into, or more simply, tells a cell how to make a specific protein. The human genome is made up of three billion codes (equivalent to 75,490 pages of the New York Times).
Chromosome– strands of DNA on which the genes occur. The total of all the genes are called a complex living creature’s genome.
Irreducible Complexity– a point at which a machine cannot be reduced in parts any further in order to accomplish its purpose. Our bodies have as many different micro-machines that are irreducibly complex as there are functions performed to maintain our bodies.
Proteins– the building blocks of life, are molecules, each of them (over 30k different types of proteins exist) requiring at least 75 amino acids for the protein to have structure. Their role (which are composed of amino acids) is to perform the necessary functions to build and maintain the cell (everything from cleaning up the cell, making energy, everything, except the storing of genetic information which is done by DNA/RNA).
Amino Acids – Chemical units that make up proteins. Twenty different types of amino acids are used to construct protein chains. They link together in these chains to form proteins into the shapes/dimensions for the use in which the proteins are intended (for instance as a shaft, or propeller, or ring for a bacterial flagellum). As an example, the arrangement of the proteins are comparable to the letters of the English alphabet. When proteins are properly arranged in a chain they form, per the alphabet, a meaningful word or sentence. If not one only gets gibberish. If the amino acids are arranged properly then they will fold into (the intended shape for its intended part/use) a functioning protein. If the amino acids are not formed into a useful chain, the chain will break and will be destroyed inside the cell. Amino acids must have to have the right bonds between themselves, plus they must be left-handed amino acids, finally the amino acids must link up in a specified sequence, like letters in a sequence to make a protein molecule.
The DNA molecule – A molecule (often referred to as a double helix) inside a cell that stores the instructions for sequencing amino acids into proteins (the genetic code) along a strand of DNA.
The “Genetic Code” is made up of the chemicals:
A combination of these four are arranged along the spine of the DNA molecule to form the code, or language of life telling the eventual protein what shape and function it will eventually have. This information is the most densely packed and elaborately detailed assembly of information in the universe.
These four are the make up the chemical letters in the DNA assembly instructions. They don’t interact with each other in any specific way, meaning there is no chemical attraction between any of them to make them assemble in any specific way onto the DNA backbone. Also, they’re totally interchangeable. They can attach with equal facility at any site on the backbone simply by bonding to the sugar-phosphate DNA backbone.
It’s important that these four codes are assembled in the right order for they assemble the amino acids into proteins (in a process called “Transcription”). Different arrangements, which comes from some unknown outside force arrange the four into different sequences of amino acids.
The role of DNA & RNA is to provide the genetic sequence code (the proper arrangement of A, C, G & T, to tell an amino acid, or protein how to replicate the cell, or what other tool or machine (ex.: bacterial flagellum, etc.) it (or they) are to assemble themselves to become.
“Transcription” – The actual construction of protein parts that create, and maintain the cells that make up our bodies. It all begins inside the cell nucleus where a micro-machine unwinds the double helix where the genetic information is exposed to assemble a new specific protein molecule. Another micro-machine comes along to copy the exposed code into a new molecule called “messenger RNA.” When the transcription process is completed the slender RNA messenger strand is sent through the “Nucleor Core Complex,” the gate keeper for traffic in and out of the cell nucleus.
The RNA Messenger strand is directed to a two part factory/micro-machine called a Ribosome where the process of “Translation” will begin. After the two halves of the Ribosome machine come together a molecular assembly line begins to attach a specific chain set of amino acids (that came from other factories in the cell) often hundreds of units long. Their sequential arrangement will determine the type of protein to be manufactured (maybe the rotor, shaft, or tail on a bacterial flagellum, etc.). When the chain is finished the RNA messenger chain leaves the Ribosome and goes into a barrel shaped machine that will fold the chain into the precise shape, critical for its intended function. After the chain is folded into a protein it is then taken by another machine to the exact location where it is needed. See the transcription process.
What this article is attempting to emphasize is the fact that there is nothing random or sporadic going on inside our bodies as Charles Darwin proposed, and so many contemporary scientists are intent on defending. In fact, to get a flavor of the ongoing effort to stifle your right to know all the facts about how complex life began that separates the intelligent design explanation from the accepted Darwinist belief visit this link.